What is migraine
Migraine is a recurring, severe headache that can last from 4 to 72 hours. There are several characteristic symptoms of migraine – severe, often one-sided, throbbing headache, which is often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and increased sensitivity to light or noise. Exercise, even walking and climbing stairs, can aggravate the headache.
A small fraction of migraine patients may have symptoms called aura. These are short-term visual impairment (flickering light, points, stripes in sight) or speech, followed by severe headache. Many patients during a migraine attack feel the need to be in a dark, silent room to alleviate the symptoms associated with migraine. Migraine does not pose a threat to life, but can significantly interfere with daily activities and work.
What causes migraine?
Professionals are still not able to fully understand the causes of migraine. It is believed that migraines cause changes in the brain, as a result of which the blood vessels of the head expand and there is a sensation of pain. The most frequent provoking factors that can cause migraines are alcohol (red wine, champagne), caffeine in large quantities, stress, noise, lighting, eyestrain, changes in weather conditions, some dishes such as chocolate, cheese, nuts, smoked meat , onions and dietary supplements such as monosodium glutamate, aspartame and nitrates. Changes at the hormonal level associated with menstruation, so-called “menstrual migraine”, can also cause a migraine attack.
It is known that compared with migraine, which appears at another time, menstrual migraine is harder, it is longer and repeats more often.
Drug-free. If possible, provoking factors should be excluded. It is necessary to think about changing lifestyles – stop smoking, do not eat products containing tyramine (some types of cheese), sulfites (wines that include sulfites), nitrates (can be added to meat and nuts), limit the use of products containing chocolate and caffeine. It should be fully fed, use the optimal amount of water. Healthy sleep, physical activity is required.
Drug treatment. Pain relief or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are usually used to treat headaches. There is a special group of medicines designed specifically for the treatment of migraine. But the doctor will be the best adviser in the treatment of headaches, since correct preparation of a treatment plan and the optimal choice of medicines require patience and understanding from both the doctor and the patient.