Memo to a patient with tuberculosis
What is tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis (consumption) is one of the oldest infectious diseases.
TUBERCULOSIS IS INFECTED AND VERY DANGEROUS. Unlike other infections, it has a chronic course, which increases the number of infected many times. The disease, as a rule, does not occur immediately: from infection to onset, it can take from several months to several years.
A bit of history
This misfortune of all mankind has become increasingly widespread, becoming “the” white plague of the twentieth century. ” It was not by chance that consumption was reflected in the works of F.M. Dostoevsky and A.P. Chekhov, C. Dickens and A. Dumas, in the canvases of artists KD Flavitsky, N.P. Klodt, V.M. Maksimova, V.D. Polenova, in operas by D. Verdi, D. Puccini. Tuberculosis was sick and died V.G. Belinsky, N.A. Dobrolyubov, A.P. Chekhov, F. Chopin and many other writers, poets, artists, composers. By the mid-twentieth century, epidemiological indicators of tuberculosis throughout the world were significantly improved. The incidence rate in our country by the end of the 80s was already quite low. However, since the beginning of the 90s, against the background of the decline in the living standards of the Russian population, there has been an increase in the incidence, which by the end of the 20th century has increased by more than 2 times. This strongly suggests that tuberculosis is a medical and social problem. We are entering a new millennium with a terrifying situation regarding tuberculosis. Today he dies more than from all infectious diseases combined. According to WHO, women die from tuberculosis more often than from childbirth. Of particular concern is the very significant increase in the incidence of children, which indicates a high risk of infection with tuberculosis. In other words, there are more patients among the population – bacteriological secrets, which are the most dangerous sources of infection for others, especially children, whose body, lacking sufficient means of protection, is most at risk of infection and disease.
Modern socio-economic conditions, which have drastically reduced the body’s defenses, and the high resistance of the pathogen to anti-tuberculosis drugs allow the disease, in conditions of neglect of preventive measures, to affect all segments of the population!
The causative agent of the disease – Mycobacterium tuberculosis – was discovered by Robert Koch in 1882, it was called “Koch’s wand”, now you can find the abbreviated name, MBT or BK. The distinguishing feature of MBT (BK) is its resistance to acids and alcohol. They remain viable when exposed to various physical and chemical agents. In a dry sputum (under certain conditions), BC can remain viable for up to six months. And in the dried sputum on various objects (furniture, books, dishes, bed linen, towels, floor, walls, etc.) they can retain their properties for several months.
An important feature of the Office
After the initial infection may not occur any clinical manifestations of the disease. The disease does not develop, but Mycobacterium (BC) can be in the body for a long time (years, decades), without causing him harm. Such a state of relative equilibrium can be disrupted in favor of the pathogen while reducing the body’s defenses (deterioration of social conditions of life, malnutrition, stressful situations, aging). That is why an elderly person (over 60 years old) can become infected with tuberculosis in childhood (adolescence), although infection occurred half a century ago and more. Infection with tuberculosis is important for people of any age. SOURCE – a sick person, sometimes does not even know about the disease, because tuberculosis can occur under the guise of a common cold, long-term curable pneumonia, and sometimes without any manifestations, therefore, for tuberculosis, PREVENTION AND EARLY DETECTION HAS SPECIAL VALUE.
In this regard, the patient with tuberculosis – the carrier of bacteria should be aware that it represents a danger to others (especially for people from the closest family environment – in the outbreak of tuberculosis infection) and for colleagues in school and work. He is obliged to follow the recommendations prescribed by the provisions of sanitary prevention of tuberculosis.
How does the infection occur?
ENTRANCE GATES – infection penetration paths are most often – the airways where large amounts of bacilli fall with droplets of mucus and sputum, which are ejected by patients when they sneeze, talk, or cough. Less commonly, infection occurs when eating dairy products from animals suffering from tuberculosis. There may be other (casuistic) pathways of infection (through the skin, tonsils), and intrauterine infection of the fetus in pregnant women is also noted.
Airborne infection is the most dangerous, in which the Office gets into the respiratory tract of healthy people from coughing patients. At the same time, peculiar “aerosols” of the smallest sputum particles (mucus), sometimes containing a huge amount of the causative agent of tuberculosis, are formed in the surrounding air.